IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - (Page 46)

Next involved, but it can be done for a shorter are both plentiful and relatively cheap, period of time and the heating costs are which makes them very desirable. Past considerably minimized when compared work on these systems resulted in low to the vacuum-based approach. efficiency, less than 7 percent. Our goal was therefore to see if we could boost the efficiency in these materials and Q. You mentioned a world record for additionally, instead of using vacuumCZTS efficiency at 9.6 percent. Does that based application techniques, use our number represent the output for the solar solution-based application techniques, rays that are being collected? which we expect to cost less. A. Exactly. So a square meter of area Somewhat surprisingly, it worked might get 1,000 watts of solar radiation very well, much better than we probably coming down. The question is, how could have hoped for in such a short much power in watts do you get out period of time. Not only were we able to deposit these materials, but they TOP EFFICIENCY of exceeded prior records for this class past solar systems of materials in terms of efficiency by built from CZTS, a blend of readily more 40 percent. That was the basis available materials for the Advanced Materials paper, which has generated a fair amount EFFICIENCY of attention. The main thrust behind reached this is that we’re replacing more by traditional materials that are being IBM pursued, such as the gallium and researchers indium in CIGS, with tin and zinc, and additionally demonstrating worldPOTENTIAL EFFICIENCY after scientists record performance in these materials perfect using a solution-based process as deposition opposed to a vacuum-based process. processes Q. How far do you think you can go? A. Well, our next target is basically to get from 9.6 up to about 12 percent power conversion efficiency. If one looks at the material properties of CZTS versus CIGS, there’s no reason that I know of why the efficiency for this material should not get as high as it is in CIGS, which is to say up to about 20 percent. The crystal structure of the material is very much the same. At this point, I don’t know why one wouldn’t expect to get up to the same types of efficiencies as in CIGS. Keep in mind that it took two decades to go from efficiencies close to 10 percent up to 20 percent with CIGS. These are complicated materials and small changes in processing can have a big impact on efficiency. Understanding the optimal conditions of deposition can take quite a bit of time, as it did for CIGS. I would expect the same to be true for CZTS, although, hopefully, what we learned from CIGS can be also be applied to CZTS and maybe the process can be sped up a bit. Q. What’s the difference between the vacuum- and solution-based processes? A. A vacuum-based approach basically employs one of two processes, one being evaporation and the other sputtering. In an evaporation-based approach, for example, you have separate crucibles, so to speak, that contain copper, indium, gallium and selenium (for CIGS) and you have to heat these crucibles up to high temperature to get them to evaporate. In addition, you have a substrate on which you’re depositing these elements in a vacuum chamber. So you have to have a large antechamber and you need to heat your sample during this deposition. This involves fairly large amounts of energy in terms of heating up the sources, heating up the substrate, evacuating this large antechamber—and then you have issues with homogeneously putting down all four elements—usually it’s more than four, because everything’s incorporated—over large areas. Solution-based processing, on the other hand, is not done under vacuum. It’s done essentially under atmospheric pressure. This makes the containment a little easier. It’s basically just sprayed onto the surface and dried. There’s still heating 46 AUGUST 2010 7% 9.6% 20% of your solar cell? Comparing these two numbers gives you the efficiency of the device. Q. Have other organizations reached higher eff iciency using different materials? A. Actually, a number of technologies can give you higher efficiency. CIGS, for example, the original material that we were working on, has yielded efficiencies as high as 20 percent, so a little more than twice as much as what we’ve achieved with CZTS. So this isn’t a world record for any solar cell but rather a world record for this particular material. The reason that this material is interesting is because it doesn’t contain indium or gallium, but rather other materials that cost less and are more plentiful. One of the most important metrics is really cost per unit of power. That means that not only is efficiency important, which is a measure of power generated, but also the cost of the materials and the fabrication process that goes into that solar cell. One metric that describes this is dollars per watt. Q. Will one type of material or fabrication technology supersede others? A. We suspect that there’s a place for many of the different technologies. For example, silicon currently has the highest efficiency in terms of single junction devices, above 20 percent. So for certain applications silicon is going to be the desired choice just because it can offer the best efficiency. In other cases, CIGS or CZTS may become more desirable, not only for cost reasons but maybe because of the thinness of layers that you can apply. It can also allow for a flexible type of substrate to be used. You can actually bend these solar cells if they’re put on an appropriate substrate. There may be certain applications where flexible properties are desirable. I would envision that it’s not so much that one technology is going to completely annihilate another but rather that there are going to be several technologies competing for market share. Q. Is the real story here using readily available materials and more efficient fabrication methods? A. That’s right. Other groups had been looking at this CZTS system and had achieved efficiencies of 5, 6, almost 7 percent, but the efficiencies had stopped ibmsystemsmag.com/power http://www.ibmsystemsmag.com/power

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010

IBM Systems Magazine, Power systems Edition - August 2010
Table of Contents
On The Web
Editor's Desk: Family Support
Dashboard: Creativity Rules, Security Careers are Smart, Software Aquisistions, The Pursuit of Internet
Trends: Extending Green Facility Concepts Beyond the Data Center
Data Display: The Best CEOs Share a Tolerance for Uncertainty
Case Study: United Notions & Fabrics Quilts Together a Quality IT Environment on a Budget.
Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment.
Centralized Support: IBM Support Portal Provides Everything You Need to Stay Up and Running.
The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training
Focus on Storage: IBM XIV Gains Enterprise Acceptance, Clout and Capacity
Next: IBM Researchers Shine a New Light on Solar-Cell Technology
Solutions
Power Systems Interface
Advertiser's Index
IBM Perspective: Supporting Business Needs
Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career

IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010

IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - IBM Systems Magazine, Power systems Edition - August 2010 (Page Cover1)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - IBM Systems Magazine, Power systems Edition - August 2010 (Page Cover2)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - IBM Systems Magazine, Power systems Edition - August 2010 (Page 1)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Table of Contents (Page 2)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Table of Contents (Page 3)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Table of Contents (Page 4)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Table of Contents (Page 5)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - On The Web (Page 6)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - On The Web (Page 7)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - On The Web (Page 8)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - On The Web (Page 9)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Editor's Desk: Family Support (Page 10)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Editor's Desk: Family Support (Page 11)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Dashboard: Creativity Rules, Security Careers are Smart, Software Aquisistions, The Pursuit of Internet (Page 12)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Dashboard: Creativity Rules, Security Careers are Smart, Software Aquisistions, The Pursuit of Internet (Page 13)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Trends: Extending Green Facility Concepts Beyond the Data Center (Page 14)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Trends: Extending Green Facility Concepts Beyond the Data Center (Page 15)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Trends: Extending Green Facility Concepts Beyond the Data Center (Page 16)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Trends: Extending Green Facility Concepts Beyond the Data Center (Page 17)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Data Display: The Best CEOs Share a Tolerance for Uncertainty (Page 18)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Data Display: The Best CEOs Share a Tolerance for Uncertainty (Page 19)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Case Study: United Notions & Fabrics Quilts Together a Quality IT Environment on a Budget. (Page 20)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Case Study: United Notions & Fabrics Quilts Together a Quality IT Environment on a Budget. (Page 21)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Case Study: United Notions & Fabrics Quilts Together a Quality IT Environment on a Budget. (Page 22)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Case Study: United Notions & Fabrics Quilts Together a Quality IT Environment on a Budget. (Page 23)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment. (Page 24)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment. (Page 25)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment. (Page 26)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment. (Page 27)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment. (Page 28)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Your Support Crew: IBM's Comprehensive Tools and User Communities Help Maximize Your Investment. (Page 29)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Centralized Support: IBM Support Portal Provides Everything You Need to Stay Up and Running. (Page 30)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Centralized Support: IBM Support Portal Provides Everything You Need to Stay Up and Running. (Page 31)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Centralized Support: IBM Support Portal Provides Everything You Need to Stay Up and Running. (Page 32)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Centralized Support: IBM Support Portal Provides Everything You Need to Stay Up and Running. (Page 33)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training (Page 34)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training (Page 35)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training (Page 36)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training (Page 37)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training (Page 38)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - The Education Challenge: Be Creative with Ongoing Employee Training (Page 39)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Focus on Storage: IBM XIV Gains Enterprise Acceptance, Clout and Capacity (Page 40)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Focus on Storage: IBM XIV Gains Enterprise Acceptance, Clout and Capacity (Page 41)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Focus on Storage: IBM XIV Gains Enterprise Acceptance, Clout and Capacity (Page 42)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Focus on Storage: IBM XIV Gains Enterprise Acceptance, Clout and Capacity (Page 43)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Next: IBM Researchers Shine a New Light on Solar-Cell Technology (Page 44)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Next: IBM Researchers Shine a New Light on Solar-Cell Technology (Page 45)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Next: IBM Researchers Shine a New Light on Solar-Cell Technology (Page 46)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Next: IBM Researchers Shine a New Light on Solar-Cell Technology (Page 47)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Solutions (Page 48)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Solutions (Page 49)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Solutions (Page 50)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Power Systems Interface (Page 51)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Power Systems Interface (Page 52)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Advertiser's Index (Page 53)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - IBM Perspective: Supporting Business Needs (Page 54)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - IBM Perspective: Supporting Business Needs (Page 55)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career (Page 56)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career (Page Cover3)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career (Page Cover4A)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career (Page Cover4B)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career (Page RF1)
IBM Systems Magazine, Power Systems Edition - August 2010 - Snapshot: Lunch Conversations Lead to IT Career (Page RF2)
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